Humanist Voice - Voice of the 99% | Newsletter of the Humanist Party of India

Switch to desktop Register Login

Home

Land Acquisition and Displacement in Western Odisha: An Overview

LAND ACQUISITION AND DISPLACEMENT IN WESTERN ODISHA: AN OVERVIEW

Dr. Narendra Kumar Behera*

Introduction: In the aegis of neoliberal development strategies, one primary factor of production i.e. land has become the centre of discussion among policy makers, bureaucrats, academic and researchers more than any other factor. Above all the common people have come to focus their attention to it than ever before. The unlimited desire of the capitalist to acquire land by any means has become the centre of controversy at different parts of the country at different time period. The development paradigm considers mega projects and large dams as the inevitable way for the development and the synonymous of development. The coalition between capitalist, politicians, bureaucrats, contractors and pressure from urban consumers used to push for the adoption of these mega projects which require large land area and causes large scale population displacement. The snatching away of land and common property resources (CPR) from the people living in the interior parts of the country severely affects and dismantles the life and livelihood of the people who are adversely affected by these projects. These big projects are embedded with huge social cost which in very often get neglected in the face of present state of development paradigm. When the life and livelihood of affected population are at stake it is obvious that projects are bound to be protested by the people and even be stalled.

Instruments of Land Acquisition: Development projects demand for acquisition of land. Land is acquired by the government under the colonial Land Acquisition Act (LAA) 1894 on eminent domain and public purpose. The British were all set to modernize the then capital city, Calcutta but they were ill equipped, without acquiring the state rights over individual land. The first All India Act VI of 1857 was passed where land owners may be required by the legislature to surrender some of their rights they possess over their land for a purpose of public utility. Subsequently, a well defined, all Comprehensive Land Acquisition Act (LAA) covering the whole of British India came into force on the first day of March, 1894 as the Act 1 of 1894. Under the clause of ‘Eminent Domain’ and ‘Public Purpose’ the state is empowered to acquire privately owned land. Till now with minor amendments in 1984 this Act is being followed by the State as well as Government of India in the matter of land acquisition and distribution of compensation to the land owner. The mode of compensation is based on the market value of land only. The legal holders are only entitled to get the compensation on the basis of a land valuation fixed by the government taking note in to the sale deeds of that area. The valuation as fixed by the LAA fails to take in to consideration the future returns of land and which is usually less than the replacement cost of land. Another important dimension of land acquisition is that those people having land record of rights are accounted and people having no title to land rights and dependants on Common Property Resources (CPRs) are discounted from the purview of the act.

In addition to the LAA1894 there are 16 more Central Acts which causes land acquisition and displacement. These are namely; The Land Acquisition (Mines) Act, 1885, The Indian Tramways Act, 1886, The Works of Defense Act, 1903, The Forest Act 1927, The Maneuvers, Field Firing and Artillery Practice Act 1938, The Resettlement of Displaced Persons (Land Acquisition) Act, 1948, The Damodar Valley Corporation Act, 1948, The Requisitioning and Acquisition of Immovable Property Act, 1952, National Highway Act 1956 The National Highways Act, 1956, The Coal Bearing Areas Acquisition and Development Act 1957, The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958, The Atomic Energy Act, 1962, The Petroleum and Minerals Pipelines (Acquisition of Right of User in Land) Act, 1962, The Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978, The Railway Act 1989, The Electricity Act, 2003. The Special Economic Zones Act 2005, the Cantonments Act, 2006, The Special Economic Zones Act, 2005. It is generally regarded land as state subject, the state face the wrath of people in the form of protest movement. But land can be acquired by the Union as well as State government for different purposes.

After industrialization gathered momentum, particularly with the onset New Economic Policy 1991, private companies both domestic and foreign entered the race for getting hold of land in various parts of the country. They themselves entered the land market and started acquiring land at the prevailing market price. But what became more treacherous, the State became an agent for the private sector in the name of industrialization and higher Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Liberal Economic Policy has led much more land acquisition and displacement then was practiced in the past, especially in states that already have a high number of previous displaced people/project affected people but promised large tracts of land for Special Economic Zones (SEZ). For example, Orissa used 98,000 acres for industries in 1951-95 and plan to acquire 98,000 acres more in the succeeding decade (Fernandes and Asif,1997)(Quoted in Lobo and Kumar 2009: 9)

The intense controversies over land acquisition and displacement for the last several decades have compelled the Government of India to go for a new law. The new Land Acquisition and Resettlement &Rehabilitation(R&R) Bill 2011, pending before the Parliament is going to take the issue of R&R along with land acquisition. The new law is likely to address the problem of land acquisition and displacement in a progressive manner then earlier.

Western Odisha: Odisha is a state of two in one. Geographically the state has been divided into hill districts of Western Orissa and coastal districts of plain. The coastal districts of Odisha compared to the hill or Western districts are in a much more advantageous and privileged state both in political and economic aspects. In view of large mineral deposits, a number of large scale industries have developed in this area – such as the aluminium industries at Hirakud, Damanjodi; the Hindustan Aeronautic Ltd. at Sunabeda; the Steel Plant at Rourkela; Cement plants at Bargarh, Jharsuguda and Rajgangpur; ordnance factory at Saintala; Refractory at Belpahar and Rajgangpur; Thermal power stations at Banharpali. In the 1950s, one of the world’s largest artificial lakes i.e. Hirakud Dam near Sambalpur has been built across the river Mahanadi. All these projects have acquired large scale cultivable land and forest land and caused large scale population displacement.

Magnitude of Displacement: Land acquisition coexists with the evils of population displacement. Researchers like Prof. M. Cernea, Walter Fernandes and others have tried to evolve a data base for the displaced people of different projects in India. In India, of the 20 million people displaced since 1947, it is estimated that 75 percent of them have been impoverished due to development projects (Downing 2005). During the last two decades of the previous century, the magnitude of force population displacement caused by development programme was of the order of 10 million people each year or some 200 million people globally during that period. [Cernea, 2000:11]


 

Table No. 1

A Conservative Estimate of Displaced Persons by various categories of Projects India (1951-1990)

Sl. No.

Type of Project

Number of Displaced

Number of Rehabilitated

Back log

1.

Dams

1,64,00,000

41,00,000

1,23,00,000

2.

Mines

25,50,000

6,30,000

19,20,000

3.

Industries

12,50,000

3,75,000

8,75,000

4.

Sanctuaries

6,00,000

1,25,500

4,75,000

5.

Others

5,00,000

1,50,000

3,50,000

 

Total

2,13,00,000

53,80,000

1,59,20 ,000

Source: Fernandez and et al 1998, p251

The above table 1 shows the number of displaced people in the country during 1951-90 in India. Among all the displacing projects, dams top the list. And table 2 shows a few cases of displacement situation of West Odisha.

Table No 2

Name of Project

Total land Acquired in Acre

No of villages Affected

No of families Affected

No of People Displaced

Hirakud Dam

167,377

249

22,144

160,000

Upper Indravati Dam

32477

105

5301

18,500

Rengali Dam

102,672

263

11,289

46,570

Rourkela Steel Plant

19,277

30

4251

23,400

Bhusan Steel

1315

13

164

854

IB Thermal Power Station

487

03

147

748

Ib Valley Open Coal mine

4500

18

110

495

OCL India, Rajgangpur

1133

--

13

105

VAL,Lanjigarh

1516

--

1248

600

Upper Kolab Dam

28375

49

3179

15,890

 

 
 
 

Sources:-Reddy, 1992, p 176, B. Pandey, 1998, Sabar, 2010 and Other Official Records, 2007

The above table shows cases of displacement & amount of land acquisition for a few selected public sector projects and private industries established during the pre and post reform periods. In this context it may be said that while acquiring land the quality and the need aspect of land is not taken into consideration. The Hirakud reservoir project there was the acquisition of 1,67,377 acre but it lost good quality land amounting to 1,15,128acre in the reservoir forever in the reservoir. There is an excess acquisition of land by number of projects only in the name of development. This is going to threaten the food security in future. With the adoption of New Economic Policy 1991, the domestic private sector and multinationals have assume the role of industrializing the state mainly through the mineral based industries rather than through any value additive industries. Other groups such as Bhusan, Vedanta, Aditya Birla are going to add more to land acquisition and displacement through their mining and industrial operation in western Odisah. The controversy over Vedanta’s mining in Niyamgiri has shown the aggressive capitalism for the use of natural resources in west Odisha. According to latest information 10,226.437 hectares of forest land have been diverted for mines, industries and infrastructure projects in the state. Out of which the share of forest land diverted for such purposes in west Odisha is 3718.281 hectares. (Dhritri; 9th Jan.2012)

People’s Voice: “Let it not be said of India, that this great Republican a hurry to develop itself, is devastating the green mother earth and uprooting our tribal population” -- From the Speech of the President of India, K.R. Narayan, 25th January 2001

As long as people keep themselves mum, there is no problem but as soon they start affirming their rights, they face the state brutality and repression. Displacement induces the affected people to voice against displacement on account of several factors, like disruption of economic and social fabric, inadequate and improper resettlement and rehabilitation measures, denial of project benefit to the displaced people. Sacrifice and pains, and the real cost undertaken by the displaced persons are neither recognized by the society nor even by the beneficiaries of the project concerned. It has been an observed fact that the project authorities and displaces have no economic compulsion to “work together”. In fact it has become a day to day column of most of the state’s news paper to focus the problem of displaced people of different industries, mining projects that are protesting and demanding better resettlement and rehabilitation measures from the authority.

The causes of displaced people have been brought to the light more successfully by the Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) against the construction of Sardar Sarovar Project. The leadership of Medha Patkar is considered as symbolic voice of displaced people of the country. In the recent past she had been to support the cause of the affected people due to the construction of POSCO steel plant in the district of Jagatsinghpur of Odisha.

The construction of Hirkud Dam in the river Mahanadi saw the first large dam project in Odisha built as an anti-flood measure to save the coastal people. With the announcement of the project in 1945 there were mass protests by the people of Sambalpur district. Bharat Nayak, a retired Deputy Collector opposed the project on the grounds of hilly terrain, losss of cultivable fertile land, and loss of minerals and displacement. As mark of protest 30000 people demonstrated in front of Governor of Orissa at Sambalpur. If necessary people of were prepared to separate Sambalpur out of Orissa. On Nov. 10, 1946, I.P.C. 144 was declared, which remain in forced for three months. The withdrawal of local congress leaders, betrayal of leaders like Budhuram Dube etc. and the imposing image of congress party led to the failure of protest movement against Hirakud Dam. The large-scale agitation in the1960’s against the 2nd large dam at Tikarpara, downstream of the Mahanadi which would have displaced several thousands of people in the present districts Sonepur and Boudh. The Government was forced to cancel the Tikerpara dam. In the 80’s there was a massive protest by the local people and environmentalists against the public sector aluminium company BALCO to carry out it mining operation at Gandhamardan Mountain. In spite of a beginning by the company it had to shut down its operation before the public agitation.

Recently on 21 July 2011, the Government of Odisha has signed a MoU with National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC) and Orissa Hydro Power Corporation (OHPC) to set up three hydel projects in the districts of Sambalpur, Sonepur and Boudh downstream of river Mahanadi in Western Odisha. The government declared that the proposed plants would have an installed capacity of 320 MW and that Orissa would receive 12 per cent of the output for free. The government also announced that 1 per cent of the cost of the power generated will be spent on peripheral development activities in the region. It is known as the Sindhol-I (100 MW), Sindhol-II (100 MW) and Sindhol-III (120 MW) hydroelectric projects. Government has also announced that the power project would provide ample employment opportunity apart from the economic development in the region. Perhaps the Government of Orissa has not learnt any lesson from the worst resettlement and rehabilitation of the oustees of Hirakud, Rengali dams and it will be a top task to go for the proposed project at this juncture. The euphoria of sacrifice has lost its ground in the age increasing awareness and strong voice against displacement. The government set a Sub-Committee to look in to the Sindhol project. After the report of the Sub-Committee in Dec. 2011 the government announced the cancellation of Sindhal projects. Thus there are a few cases of successful agitation against projects in west Odisha.

The long march in October, 2007 of more than 25000displaced, landless dalits and tribal from Gwalior to New Delhi to pressurize the central government to form a national lands commission and formulate a national land reforms policy was the culmination of many years of struggle, despaired and hope thousands of land less people (Pai: 2007, p10) In the recent past the cases of Kalinganagar, Singur, Nandigram, and Kashipur are worth mentioning. The police firing at Kalinganagar killed 13 tribal people (Jan.2006) due to construction of Tata steel which is likely to displace 443 families. In 2001, 10 tribal people were killed in a police firing in the protest against the Koel Karo Hydro Power Project. Similarly on Dec.6, 2008 one person was killed and several injured in a police firing near Dumka, Jharkhanda. Thus history shows number of cases where bloodshed has taken place for land acquisition. In the recent past, on May7, Bhatta and Pasaul (U.P.) saw violent clashes, with the police and government officials on one side and the residents on the other. Eight people, including two policemen, were killed and around 100 went missing (Mahaprashasta; p125)

The (peoples) movements have brought to the light the tremendous loss of resources-forests, land, money etc. due to development projects and policies. It is a highly subsidized development which glosses over the huge cost the nation pays in the form of loss of green forest, pure air and water, fertile land, livelihood and social disruption .If these costs were computed, these projects would reflect their burden and prove counter – productive for the nation [Sangvai, 2007:114] Thus the growing euphoria on the part of the state to create more mineral based industries in the state is going to witness the ugly face of development induced displacement along with a serious consequences to the environment in the days to come. In the name of economic development the developed countries have successfully transferred the most pollutant industries to the developing countries and the brunt of pollution have to be carried by the people of these developing countries. The alarm of climate change has already warned the people. The voice of the people needs to be considered with a human consideration rather than ignoring them in the name of development alone.

Consequences of Land Acquisition and Displacement: In India, of the 20 million people displaced since 1947, it is estimated that 75 percent of them have been impoverished due to development projects (Downing 2005) The Land Acquisition Act has failed to address several economic, social, cultural, psychological and physical aspects of the displaced people. Once displacement takes place successfully, whatever may be the policy of R&R, they become marginalized; their voice remained unheard, they become rootless and suppressed ruthlessly. The democratic rules of right to equality and right against exploitation fail to operate for the victims of development. Their sacrifice for the cause of development became the forgotten story of the past and they slip down the economic and social ladder. The best examples are the uncared victims of development projects like Hirakud and Bhakra dams. Experiences show that development process creates a marginalized section of the people who become exclusion rather than inclusion to the process of development. Development induced displacement endangers human rights. The World Commission on Dams estimated that by 2000, 40-80 million people had already been forcibly displaced as a result of large dam projects alone.

The widespread impact of displacement upon the displaced people is largely negative in term of economic and social consequences. The environment too goes unheeded. The economic structure of the displaced people collapses. Based on the issues of resettlement Prof. Michel M. Cernea has evolved eight major impoverishment risk factors arising out of displacement. These are (i) landlessness, (ii) joblessness, (iii) homelessness, (iv) marginalization, (v) food insecurity, (vi) increase in morbidity and mortality, (vii) loss of access to common property and (viii) social disarticulation. Other risks like the risk of education, risk in shift of occupation and risk of loss of livestock are also very much associated with displacement. Again to quote Cernea, “Expropriation of land removes the main foundation upon which people’s productive systems, commercial activities livelihoods are constructed .This is the principal form of decapitalisation and pauperization for most rural and many urban displaces, who lose this way both natural and manmade capital”. (Cernea: 1999, p17) The draft National Tribal Policy (NTP) 2006 also admits the alienation of tribal land is the single most important cause of pauperization of tribal.

McCully (1998) in the context of large dams says the permanent inundation of forest, wetlands and wildlife is perhaps the most obvious ecological effect of a dam. Reservoirs have flooded vast areas-at least 40,000 square kilometers have been lost worldwide. Yet it is not only the amount of land lost which is important, but also its quality; river and flood plain habitats are some of the world’s most diverse ecosystem. (p.36) In order to avert massive ecological destruction or social disintegration, mega-dam projects should not be planned in the future.

The activist Medha Patkar told Frontline: “It is not land acquisition that is the chief issue. The main issue is of planning and development. Anything and everything are being called a project in the “public interest”. What could be worse when even the government statistics, in the Economic Survey of India, estimates that more than 60 lakh hectares has been taken in the last 15 years and hardly any among the poor has been benefited out of this development. It so happens that the rural and urban poor and not the elites of the country have to sacrifice always for such development. And this is leading to a scenario of structural violence of the state against violence of the people. (Mahaprashasta; 2011, pp128)

Laws and Policy on Land Acquisition & Displacement in Odisha: -

The Government of Odisha did not have any rehabilitation policy for a long time. Due to the lack of a basic framework for rehabilitation, the oustee especially during the period from 1950 to 1970 have suffered a lot and a number of them have perished in the changed condition of post displacement. “It was found in 1988 that even after 32 years of filling of Hirakud reservoir compensation amounting to Rs.15 crore rupees were to be paid to 9,913 claimants who lost their lands. A number of cases are yet to be disposed even after sixty year of its existence. In the case of Machhakund Hydro-electric project, no rehabilitation provisions were made for 300 displaced scheduled caste families. Only 450 families, which are 30 per cent of the total tribal families displaced belonging to scheduled tribes, were rehabilitated. Similarly, the Rourkela Project (Steel Plant) rehabilitated 53.6 per cent of its total number of displaced families. There was no clear-cut principle under which the land was allotted to each family for the purpose of rehabilitation.” (Patnaik, S.M.1996:125)

It is fact that there was no resettlement and rehabilitation (R&R) policy for the displaced people of Odisha they were dealt with the limited provision of compensation under LAA 1894, which was quite insufficient, inappropriate and unjust towards the displaces. The dam projects had no R&R policy till 1973.It is only, the agitation of Rengali oustees forced the Govt. for a policy in 1973 and subsequently in 1990and 1994. In case of industrial and mining units like RSP, HAL, NALCO, Ordnance factory they have their own policy to deal the displacement. The NALCO adopted two types of policy one is the land for land and other is the land based rehabilitation. The displaced people of industrial projects have however been treated better in comparison to dams.

On 14th May 2006, (Notification No.18040-R&REH-1/2006) the Government of Odisha declared the Orissa Resettlement & Rehabilitation Policy (ORRP) following the Kalinganagar massacre (2nd Jan. 2006) in which 14 tribals were shot dead in police firing. The policy is somehow an improved version and shall apply to all projects for which private land has been acquired under LAA, 1894 as well as for which land is acquired through negotiation under the policy. The ORRP 2006 has identified five different types of projects where displacement occurs viz. A. Industrial Projects; B. Mining Projects; C. Irrigation Projects, National parks and Sanctuaries; D. Urban Projects and Linear Projects like roads and railways, power lines; and E. other projects.

The Project authority will make special efforts to facilitate skill up-gradation of the displaced people. The policy has the provision to provide employment to one member of each displaced family in case of industrial and mining projects and onetime cash assistance up to Rs 5 lakh to those displaced families who have lost all land including homestead land in the following categories. (i) Displaced Families coming under Category (i) 5.00 lakh (ii) Displaced Families coming under Category (ii) 3.00 lakh (iii) Displaced Families coming under Category (iii) 2.00 lakh (iv) Displaced Families coming under Category (iv) & (v) 1.00 lakh

However certain areas of concern still prevails e.g. the involvement of intermediaries like IDCO&IPCOL has raised various questions. It is said that the tribal were paid Rs.22000/-to 37000/-per acre by the Industrial Development Corporation of Orissa, which in turn sold the land to TATA at Rs.3/- to3.5 lakhs per acre. The displaced tribal feel that the said compensation paid to them was below the current market price. (Sahoo: 2006, p, 134) The ORRP 2006 has failed to address the cause of dispossession and deprivation of sustainable livelihood of the displaced people in general and the adivasis in particular. In exercising the state sovereign power it has been acting as a broker for the private corporate sector. The burning examples of such cases are Tata steel at Kalinganagar and POSCO steel near Paradip port in Jagatsinghpur district. Let the land of Orissa be not hijacked by the corporate world to serve their vested interest. The policy does not provide any means of free, prior and inform consent of the affected families before the process of land acquisition starts. There is no mandatory provision on the part of the state to provide land to the displaced people. The ORRP 2006 is meant for the likely to be displaced families but remain silent about the 1.5 million already displaced during the past few decades. The improper implementation of ORRP, 2006 has also come under judicial scanning of the Orissa High Court in the case of Kalinganagar industrial estate (The Telegraph, Oct. 25 2011) Even after more than sixty years of Hirakud dam project number of displaced people are yet to receive their compensation. God knows when their cases will be finalized.

Inadequate provision of agricultural land for the displaced people from mining and industrial projects may lead fettered away of cash compensation in a very short time period. Thus there is the need of providing displaced people with replacement of agricultural land and the cases of multiple displacements taking place around Hirakud reservoir due development of open cast coal mining and large scale industries need a far better treatment than the prescribed additional compensation amounting to 50 percent of the normal compensation.

Here a question arises, why the displaced people will be dealt through a policy which not enforceable. How long their sacrifice will be out of the orbit of law? Let the policy be given a legal status by the Government, so that these provisions will have a legal dress. Their sacrifice will get at least a legal status after six decade of independence. Realizing the absence of national law to provide adequate and just resettlement and rehabilitation and compensation for the loss of livelihood of the displaced people and the high public concern on the problem of land acquisition issue throughout the country, on July 29th the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India has placed the Draft Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation and Resettlement (LARR) Bill for the public opinion. Now it is in the Parliament for discussion and approval. It is for the first time after sixty years of independence that the LAA is going to accompany with Resettlement and Rehabilitation as an act. The various R&R policies of states, central government were not enforceable and there were large gaps between policy and practice. With the enactment of LARR Bill, it is expected that the project affected people of different development may get a better deal.

 

Conclusion: The past record of least satisfactory R&R policy and its implementation has developed a sense of betrayal among the displaced people of most of the projects in the country hence there is growing resistances. The incremental nature of R&R is not the solution to the growing problem of development induced displacement. There is the need of human touch. Let us consider them as ‘Great Sacrifices’ for nation building and be part of enjoying the fruit of development. The mechanical and economic aspects of development projects need transformation and should be the looked from the angle of the sacrifices of development. Let the next generation be proud of parents’ sacrifices and equally enjoy the fruit of development. The colonial politico-bureaucratic pattern of development should find an alternative mode of development i.e. to ameliorate the plight of teeming Indians through education, health rather than selling the country to the MNC/TNC and domestic large industrial houses through the back door.

Displacement should be avoided or to be as minimum as possible. The fertile land and populated areas should be out of the industrial establishment. The displaced people should be provided land based rehabilitation along with replacement cost of land rather than market determined price for the acquired land. The Resettlement and Rehabilitation measures need to precede the construction of projects. Education and training must be imparted to the affected population before the commencement of the projects so as to prevent hijack of jobs and other benefits by the outsiders. The reservation of seats in the important educational institutions of the country for the children of displaced people is the need of the days to avoid risk of education of the children. A time bound measure is needed to achieve an all-round development of the affected area. Above all a corruption free administrative mechanism is highly necessary to percolate the desire economic and social benefits to the bottom of the society. Social Security measures like, family pension need to be introduced to all categories of displaced people irrespective of the nature of the projects. Insurance coverage in respect of health, life and property should be provided to the victims of all development projects. Land in the command area of irrigation projects must be acquired to resettle and rehabilitate the displaced people of that project concerned. The corporate house must adhere to their commitment by discharging the corporate social responsibility (CSR) in a vigorous way particularly towards the displaced people. The displaced people of other projects should also be taken in a normative manner so that their deprivation of economic development is minimized and brought back to main stream. To finance displacement, measure like collection of special assessment from the project benefit area, particularly in case of irrigation projects can also be taken. The Resettlement and Rehabilitation Policy should be accorded the status of an Act. Last but not the least, before chanting the mantra of development the act for acquisition of land and R&R should content the provision of adequate measure to protect the environment so as to make provision of finite resources for the future generation and to achieve the course of sustainable development.

 

 

References:-

Baboo, B. (1992)Technology and Social Transformation, The case of Hirakud

Multipurpose Dam Project in Orissa,Concept Publishing Co, New Delhi

Behera, N.K. (2011) Displacement, Resettlement and Rehabilitation,

Abhijeet Publications New Delhi

Cernea, M. (1999) (Ed) The Economics of Involuntary Resettlement:

Questions andChallenges, World Bank Washington D, C.

-------------- (2000) Risks Safeguard and Reconstruction: A Model for Population

Displacement and Resettlement, Economic and Political Weekly, October 7,

Dharmadhikari et al (2005) Unraveling BHAKRA, ManthanAdhyaayan Kendra, Badwani.

Dhagamwar and et al (2003) Industrial Development and Displacement, The People of Korba,

Sage Publication, New Delhi.

Dhritri (2012) Diversion of Forest Land for Mining, Industries etc. Odiya Daily, 9th Jan.

Downing,T.(2005) Rights for the World’s Evicted: Are Development Projects

Harming the People they are meant to Help? http://www.ted-downing.com

Fernandes, W. (2004) Rehabilitation Policy for the Displaced,

Economic and Political Weekly, March, 21-27.

Iyer R. (2007) Towards a Just Displacement and Rehabilitation Policy.

Economic and Political Weekly July 28, Aug.3,

Lobo, L. and S. Kumar (2009) Land Acquisition, Displacement and Resettlement in Gujarat

1947-2004. Sage, New Delhi

Mahaprashasta, A.A. (2011) Fight for Land, Frontline, June 3.

Meher, R. (2001) Degenerating of the Periphery under Hegemonic Development the Case of

Aboriginal in a Tribal Region, Indian Social Science Review, July-Dec.2001.

Mishra,A (2007) Pasco Protestors on the Rampage. Down to Earth, June 15, 2007

McCulley, P. (1998) Silenced Rivers, Orient Longman

Murickan et al (2003) Development Induced Displacement, Rawat Publication, New Delhi

Padel,F. and Das, S.(2010) Out of this Earth, Orient Black Swan

Pai. S, (2007) Janadesh 2007: The Land Question,

Economic and Political Weekly, Nov.10-16/17-23.Vol.XLII

Panda,D.K. and Behera,N.K.(2008) Development and Displacement: An Orissa

Experience, Journal of Rural Development Vol.27, N I R D, Hyderabad.

Pandey,B.(1998) Depriving the Underprivileged for Development, I S E D, Bhubaneswar.

Reddy&Reddy (2007) Land Alienation and Local Community.

Economic and Political Weekly, Aug.4-10

Sabar, B. (2010) Development induced Displacement and Human Rights Violation in Orissa:

An Anthropological Insight, Social Action, Vol. 60, No. 2(April-June)

Sangvai. S, (2007) The New People’s Movements in India,

Economic and Political Weekly, Dec. 15-21, 2007.

Sharma, R.N. (2003) Involuntary Displacement: A Few Encounters,

Economic and Political Weekly, March 1-7

Sahoo T. (2006) Industrialization and Displacement in Orissa,Adivasi, Vol.46, No2

Supakar K. (2007) ItihasraParihas (Oriya) Mockery of History, Part II,

SukhaDukha Publication, Sambalpur

Orissa Resettlement & Rehabilitation Policy.2006,

Revenue Dept. Govt. of Orissa, Bhubaneswar.

National Rehabilitation & Resettlement Policy, 2007,

Ministry of Rural Development, New Delhi.

Draft Land Acquisition and Resettlement and Rehabilitation Bill 2011,

Ministry of Rural Development, New Delhi

External links are provided for reference purposes. The Humanist Voice and/or the Humanist Party of India are not responsible for the content of external Internet sites. Content on this site is an expression of the respective authors and respective organizations providing the content. Template Design © Joomla Templates | GavickPro. All rights reserved. Technical & Design support provided by Tulisoft Consultancy & Services Pvt Ltd, Kolkata.

Top Desktop version

Powered by Analytics for Joomla